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TIANJIN PORT CHINA
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Port of Tianjin
|Logo of the Port of Tianjin|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Operated by||Tianjin Port Group Ltd|
|Owned by||Tianjin State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission|
|Type of harbor||Deepwater Seaport/Riverport|
|Land area||107 sq km|
|Size||260 sq Km|
|Available berths||140 (2008); Production Berths: 101 (2010)|
|UN/LOCODE||CNTXG (formerly CNTSN/CNTGU)|
|World Port Index Number||60190|
|Nautical Charts||94363/0 (NGA/NIMA); 2653/4 （Admiralty); 11773/4(Chinese)|
|Annual cargo tonnage||413 M ton (2010)|
|Annual container volume||10.1M TEU (2010)|
|Passenger traffic||60,000 cruiser passengers (2010)|
|Annual revenue||14.6 billion yuan （2008）|
|Net income||803 million yuan (2010)|
Coordinates: 38°58′36″N 117°47′07″E The Port of Tianjin (Tianjin Gang, simplified Chinese: 天津港; pinyin: tiānjīn gǎng),formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The port is often identified as Tianjin Xingang (simplified Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; Wade–Giles: T'ientsin Hsinkang; literally "Tianjin New Port"), which strictly speaking refers only to its seaport area. It is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, in the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and maybe the largest in the world (depending on definition). It covers 107 square kilometers of land, with a total quay shoreline of over 21.5 km and 101 production berths in 2009.
Tianjin Port handled 413 million tons of cargo and 10.1 million TEU of containers in 2010, making it the fourth largest port by throughput tonnage in the planet, and the eleventh in container throughput. This makes it the third largest port in China, behind the merged Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan and the Port of Shanghai, and sixth in container throughput. The port trades with more than 400 ports in 180 countries and territories around the world. It is served by over 115 regular container lines. run by 60 liner companies, including all the top 20 liners. Capacity is increasing at a high rate, with 550-600Mt of throughput capacity expected by 2015.
The port is part of the Binhai New Area district of Tianjin Municipality, the main special economic zone of Northern China, and it lies directly east of the Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area. The Port of Tianjin is at the core of the ambitious development program of the Binhai New Area, and due to this developmental storm, change occurs at such an accelerated pace that information can become outdated in months.
Port Layout and Facilities
The port is divided into five main port areas: Beijiang, Nanjiang, Haihe, Dongjiang, Beitang. Directly across the estuary of the Haihe River, just south of the Nanjiang Port Area, the still under construction Tianjin Lingang Industrial Area also has a number of wharves and berths. This area is planned to become the Dagukou Port Area once completed.
Beijiang Port Area
The Beijiang Port Area (simplified Chinese: 北疆港区; pinyin: běijiāng gǎngqū; literally "Northern Border Port Area") includes the original areas of the Tanggu New Port, plus new facilities built on reclaimed land. It covers approximately 36.8 km2, has 18.9 km of coastline, and contains mostly container and general cargo terminals. It is also the main service and administration area of the port, including a container logistic center, the Tianjin Port Trade and Shipping Service Center, and the 5 km² Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone.
Nanjiang Port Area
The Nanjiang Port Area simplified Chinese: 南疆港区; pinyin: nánjiāng gǎngqū; literally "Southern Border Port Area" lies on an artificial island 16 km long （east to west) for 1.3–2 km wide (north to south), with an area of approximately 26km2. Shoreline is 14.2 km long on the north side(opening to the Main Channel), and 12 km on the south side (opening to the Dagusha Channel). This port area contains the bulk cargo terminals, in particular the various oil and coal terminals, as well as ore, liquid bulk, dry bulk, etc.
Dongjiang Port Area
Dongjiang Port Area (simplified Chinese: 东疆港区; pinyin: dōngjiāng gǎngqū) lies on an artificial peninsula 10 km long and 3 km wide to the northeast of the main basin, and has an approximate area of 33 sq km. This is the newest part of the Port, and is still in development. It includes a new container terminal, a regional logistics center, and has a 10sq km bonded port area.
The Dongjiang Port Area is being developed into a comprehensive complex with three parallel zones: the terminal area; a logistic processing zone associated with the bonded port area; and a comprehensive service zone which will include office space, residential space, and leisure facilities.
The leisure area will be centered on the cruiser terminal and yachting piers, and around an artificial beach
Haihe Port Area
The Haihe Port Area (simplified Chinese: 海河港区; pinyin: hǎihé gǎngqū）operates all riverine docks from the Xingang Shipping Lock up to the Haihe Second Tidal Barrier, a distance of 39.5 km. Once the core of the Tanggu port, the lower Haihe river area has seen diminishing number of wharves as riverfront real estate is reassigned for development. In 2003, the Haihe Port Area had 7,100m of quayside, 83 berths, 56 production berths dealing with all sorts of cargo including containers. The start of the work on the new Tanggu CBD meant the demolition of most facilities in the Xiangguowan, Yujiapu and Lanjingdao peninsulas, including the large Third Stevedoring Company terminal in Gongzhuangzi, which closed in 2009.
Nevertheless, industrial expansion further up the river will likely lead to some recovery in the number of available berths. There are plans for expansion, however, with the development of new industrial areas further upriver. Current plans call for six different production areas, with an area of 9.7km2, a quayside length of 21 km, and a total of 70 berths of 5000-3000DWT capacity, for a total throughput of 2,42 million tons.
Beitang Port Area
The Beitang Port Area (北塘港区) at present only contains a very small (2.4ha) barge wharf on the estuary of the New Yongding River with minimal capabilities. However, this port area is expected to be expanded to serve the development of the Binhai Tourism Area. There are two wharves planned, 230m and 150m in length, to serve general cargo and passenger ships. The Beitang Fishing Harbor is directly north in the mouth of the river.
Dagukou Port Area
The Lingang Tianjin Harbor Industrial Zone, directly across the mouth of the Haihe River, south of the Nanjiang Port Area has fast-growing port capabilities, and will represent the sixth port area when completed. At present. The Lingang Area will host the Shipbuilding cluster, including the large Shipbuilding base currently going online in stages.
Shipping Channel and Fairway
The Tianjin Xingang Fairway is divided into the Main Shipping Channel, the Chuanzhadong Channel, the Northern Branch Channel and the Dagusha Channel. The Haihe river fairway is treated separatedly.
- The Main shipping channel (新港主航道) is 39.5 km long. The entrance to the main shipping channel is at the gate line of the VTS control area (20 nautical miles (37 km) from the VTS control tower), and it extends to the start of the Chuanzhadong Channel. Since 2008 it incorporates the old "Dengtabei Channel" that still appears in older charts as extending from the Dagu Lighthouse to safe water.
- The Chuanzhadong channel（船闸东航道）starts roughly at the level of the Second Pier up to the Xingang Shipping Lock, a total of around 4.5 km. Called "Chuanzha channel" in Admiralty charts.
- The Northern Harbor Branch Channel （北港支航道）extends from its bifurcation from the main channel up to the northern end of the basin, approximately 8.5 km.
- The Dagusha Channel （大沽沙航道)is wholly separate from the Main Channel. It is 27.5 km long from entrance to end of fairway.
The Main Harbor Basin extends 16.5 km from the Xingang Shipping Lock to breakwater mouth. There are four secondary basins within the main basin, formed by the four jutting piers of the Beijiang port area. The North Harbor Basin has two secondary basins in development. The Dagukou Harbor Basin in the Lingang Port Area has two secondary basins in development.
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